After someone dies, their assets need to be collected in and distributed to their beneficiaries. We look at the deadlines for completing this work.
The person who deals with the administration of an estate is known as the executor or, where there was no Will, the administrator. It is their job to value the estate, apply for probate if needed, work out any tax liability, discharge debts, liquidate assets, prepare estate accounts and arrange for distribution of the money and personal items in accordance with the Will or the rules of intestacy.
The time limit for administration
One year is allowed for completing the administration, with Inheritance Tax due by the end of the sixth month after the person’s death.
If the deceased had assets in many different places, for example different bank accounts, shareholdings and assurance policies, then it can take a considerable amount of time to even work out how much is in the estate.
For this reason, it is advisable to start work on the administration as soon as possible and make sure there are no avoidable delays.
If there is a property, this will need to be sold. Again, this can take a considerable amount of time, so the wheels need to be set in motion early on. This may involve valuing items, selling contents and arranging for clearance as well as the actual property sale itself.
When the work can’t be completed in a year
It is not unusual for administration to take longer than a year, for example if it takes a long time to find a buyer for the house or if there is an issue with a government department such as the Department for Work and Pensions.
Where the executor or administrator can show that they have acted in the best interests of the estate and that the delay is justifiable, then more time is usually permitted.
If the delay continues, interim accounts can be prepared and interim payments made to the beneficiaries. Beneficiaries will be entitled to interest on payments that remain outstanding after the one year period has come to an end.
Deed of variation deadline
If a beneficiary wants to change the share they receive, for example to include another family member or for Inheritance Tax reasons, they can execute a deed of variation to redirect part of their legacy to someone else. The deadline for signing a deed of variation is two years from the date of death.
If you are concerned about the time limits for completing an estate administration, you can engage a professional to deal with the work on your behalf.
If you would like to speak to an experienced probate lawyer, ring us on 01243 216900 or email us at firstname.lastname@example.org.
More people than ever are leaving assets in foreign countries when they die, making administration of their estate more complex. We look at some of the main considerations.
One of the first questions to be answered is which country was the permanent home or country of domicile of the deceased.
If you are domiciled in the UK, Inheritance Tax is payable on your assets wherever they are located. If you are domiciled elsewhere then you may be liable for Inheritance Tax on your UK assets as well as tax payable in other countries.
All of the assets in the estate need to be valued. At this stage, approaches can be made to foreign asset holders to ask what they need from the executor, such as a certified copy of the death certificate or Grant of Probate.
Foreign property ownership
A Will made in the UK may specifically refer to foreign property, or alternatively there may be a Will made in the country where the property is located.
If there isn’t a Will at all, then the property would pass under the rules of succession that apply in the country where the property is.
Other assets held abroad
Other countries may require to see the UK Grant of Probate which would sometimes be resealed in that country. Alternatively, it may be a requirement that probate is also obtained in the country where the asset is held.
Why you need expert advice for foreign assets
Administering an estate which includes foreign assets can be lengthy and complicated. The best way to ensure things go as smoothly as possible is for anyone with foreign holdings to seek legal advice in drawing up the relevant Wills to cover all of their assets.
Some countries may have laws which clash with those of the UK, for example in France and Spain, where property may pass to specific heirs regardless of the terms of any Will.
Finding out the situation well in advance and undertaking estate planning in the light of the different laws can make a huge difference to the executor or administrator of a Will.
When it comes to dealing with the administration of an estate containing foreign assets, it is advisable to take advice from lawyers in the country where the assets are held to ensure that their laws and tax requirements are not breached.
If you would like to speak to one of our expert Will and tax lawyers, call us on 01243 216900 or email us at email@example.com.
When the owner of a business dies, probate can be lengthy and complicated as their business assets have to be valued and transferred.
Whether business assets are sold or transferred depends on the way in which the business was owned and operated as well as the wishes of the deceased.
The estate’s executor or administrator will need to obtain a Grant of Probate or Letters of Administration enabling them to deal with the business.
Sole trading and probate
If the deceased was a sole trader, then their finances and assets are simply treated as part of the estate.
Business partnerships and probate
Where the deceased was in a partnership, there would normally be a partnership agreement giving details of each partner’s contributions and liabilities. It should also set out what is to happen in the event of the death of a partner.
The deceased’s estate will be liable for any debts or a share of partnership profits. Separating the estate from the partnership may well be complex and an executor or administrator should take independent legal advice on behalf of the estate.
Companies and probate
Where the deceased owned shares in a company, the company’s Articles of Association will govern how shares can be sold and/or transferred, for example if first refusal must be given to company directors.
The executor or administrator will need to contact the company secretary and arrange for valuation of the deceased’s shareholding.
It may be that the business will need to be sold or shut down. If there are redundancies, there may be liability to make payments.
If it is advantageous to keep the business running while a buyer is sought, then someone needs to be appointed to do that. If there are other owners or partners, then liaising with them will be essential.
As well as dealing with probate, the executor or administrator may also find themselves having to deal with questions of employment law, company law, property law and insolvency.
For this reason, it is highly recommended that when the deceased owned a business, professional legal help is sought.
If errors are made during the administration of an estate, executors or administrators may be held personally liable.
If you would like expert help in dealing with a probate matter, call us on 01243 216900 or email us at firstname.lastname@example.org.
When you lose someone you love it is always a difficult time. Having to deal with the paperwork involved in administering an estate after a death – and when you’re grieving – can be extremely upsetting.
That’s why at legalmatters we will always try to make the process as pain-free as possible for you – and why we’re always delighted to hear from a client when we’ve helped a family or an individual through such a stressful time. So thank you Jane for your kind words.
“Thank you and Megan, and all in the office staff for making my journey – sorting my dad’s estate through yourself and legalmatters – a professional, reassuring and stress free time. It’s been a pleasure and I would highly recommend you to friends.”
The administration of the estate of a loved one can be a difficult job.
There are many decisions to be made at a time when people may be feeling overwhelmed and fraught. It is not uncommon for executors to fall out during this time, which is the last thing the deceased would have wanted.
People may feel that the other executor(s) are not acting in the most beneficial way, or that they are taking over or not sharing information.
Some of the administration tasks and problems that can arise
One of the main jobs after someone’s death is often to clear their property, dispose of their personal effects and put the house up for sale. Selling a home frequently causes friction, even in ordinary circumstances, and when it closely follows a death then emotions can run high.
There are also choices to be made over payments of expenses, who should be allowed to buy assets such as property or valuables, agreeing on valuations and closing or moving bank accounts. One executor may want to hold on to any property until the market improves, while another may want to sell straight away.
The process itself always takes a long time, which can be a source of frustration.
Maintaining a good relationship between executors
One of the key ways to maintain a good relationship between executors is to communicate as much as possible. If something has caused a delay, make sure everyone knows why and that it is unavoidable. If different valuations have been received, make sure the situation is talked through and try and take everyone’s point of view into account.
Stepping aside as an executor
If an executor does not want to act, it is possible to stand down before administration begins. They can either renounce the role permanently or ask for their power to be reserved, which could allow them to apply to court to become an executor at a later date.
If the relationship between executors breaks down completely, it is possible for one of them to apply to the court to have another removed, which the court might do if it believes this is in the best interests of the estate. There is then the option for a new appointment to be made.
Avoiding conflict in estate administration
It is possible to request a professional executor when drawing up your Will. This means that an expert probate lawyer will act as your executor. The advantage of this is that they are experienced in dealing with probate and will also act impartially. It can minimise delay and reassure everyone involved that the estate’s best interests are being observed.
To talk to one of our probate specialists, call legalmatters on 01243 216900 or email us at email@example.com.
On some occasions it may be possible to deal with someone’s estate without needing to apply for probate.
When someone dies, the person named as executor in their Will is responsible for collecting in, valuing and distributing their assets.
Whether or not that person needs to apply for probate depends on the value of the estate and how any assets were held.
If an estate only has a modest amount of money, it may be classed as a small estate and probate might not be necessary.
There is no exact definition of a small estate, although as a rough guide estates worth less than £5,000 may qualify.
Each bank has its own different threshold under which it will close an account and release funds without requiring a Grant of Probate, ranging from around £5,000 to £50,000.
The same applies to share registrars, life assurance companies and pensions administrators. Where the estate is fairly small, then it is worth enquiring of the asset holders what documentation they will need.
Where the deceased owned a property in their sole name then probate will be needed to deal with the sale or transfer.
Similarly, if the property was owned as tenants in common with others, probate is required.
However, if a property was held by the deceased as a joint tenant, then it will automatically pass to the other owner(s).
Jointly held assets
Similarly, joint bank accounts and other jointly held assets will pass automatically on death to the survivor(s).
It is therefore always worth checking whether probate is necessary. If most of the deceased’s property passes automatically, then it may be possible to avoid the time and expense involved in applying for a Grant of Probate.
What documents will asset holders need?
If probate is not needed, asset holders will need to see a copy of the death certificate and may require the executor to complete a form called a ‘Small Estates Declaration’.
They may also ask to see a copy of the Will and identification, such as birth or marriage certificates.
To speak to one of our probate experts, ring us on 01243 216900 or email us at firstname.lastname@example.org.
If you believe you are entitled to something from someone’s Will, you may be able to make a claim, but beware of the time limits.
If a relative dies and you have not inherited what you feel you have a right to, you may be able to make a claim under the Inheritance (Provision for Family and Dependants) Act 1975 (the Act).
It may be that you believe you were left less than you are entitled to, that you have been left nothing or that because there is no Will you have not been made a beneficiary.
If you can show that you are entitled to ‘reasonable financial provision’ then you can ask the court to grant you a share of the estate.
How long do you have to make a claim?
The Act has a strict time limit for making a claim of six months from the date of the Grant of Probate or Letters of Administration.
In very exceptional circumstances this may be extended to allow a late claim, but as a rule you must stick to the six month deadline.
Who is entitled to claim?
A spouse or civil partner may make a claim under the Act as well as a former spouse or civil partner where they have not remarried, a person living in the same household as the deceased for at least two years prior to the date of death, a child of the deceased, anyone who was treated as a child of the family such as stepchildren and anyone who was being financially maintained by the deceased.
What will the court consider?
The court will look at the applicant’s financial resources and needs as well as their future needs. This could include whether they are employed, able to work, whether they have a dependent family or are a carer.
The physical and mental capacity of the applicant will be considered at along with the obligations the deceased may have had to them.
The financial resources and needs of the beneficiaries under the Will is also taken into account together with the size of the estate.
Other factors such as the applicant’s behaviour towards the deceased will also carry weight.
The court will not simply ignore the wishes of the deceased, so it is important to put together as persuasive a case as possible.
It is also essential not to miss the six-month deadline for making the claim.
If you would like to speak to our expert probate team, ring us on 01243 216900 or email us at email@example.com.
If you’ve been left money or a share in someone’s estate, you may be wondering what liabilities you have. Do you need to pay tax on the money, and who is responsible for clearing any debts the deceased may have left?
After someone dies, their personal representative is responsible for winding up the estate. It is their job to collect in all the assets, sell any property and pay debts, including tax liabilities. Once this has been done, they will then distribute the funds in accordance with the Will or, if no Will was made, under the rules of intestacy.
Who is responsible for making payments from an estate?
If a Will was made, this will usually name a personal representative, known as an executor. If there was no Will, the Probate Registry will appoint an administrator.
This is the person who will be responsible for gathering in the money and settling any bills.
Debts are payable in a set order.
- Secured debts such as a mortgage
- Reasonable funeral costs
- Estate administration expenses
- Payments due to employees
- Unsecured debts
Estate administration expenses
These are usually the main expenses to be dealt with when winding up an estate and include the costs incurred by the personal representative, such as probate fees, estate agency and valuation fees, Income Tax and Inheritance Tax.
Making payments to beneficiaries
Once all of the debts have been paid, then the estate can be distributed to the beneficiaries. Personal possessions will be passed in accordance with the terms of any Will.
Cash payments are made in a strict order of priority.
Firstly, specified gifts of money are made to named beneficiaries.
After these have been paid, the residue is divided in accordance with the terms of the Will. A residual beneficiary can request a copy of the estate accounts, which will set out all income and expenses.
The amount of any taxes and other debts will therefore reduce the money paid to the residuary beneficiaries, as they are the last in the queue, after any specific cash legacies.
For help with administering an estate, call the probate experts at legalmatters on 01243 216900 or email us at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Winding up the estate of a deceased person can take many months, particularly if it is less than straightforward.
Following someone’s death, it takes an average six to nine months to finalise their affairs and distribute funds to the beneficiaries. The process can be complicated and frequently takes longer than this if difficulties arise.
A personal representative, either an executor or administrator (if there is no Will), has the job of listing in all the deceased’s assets and valuing them. Once this has been done, they need to work out how much tax is owed.
This needs to be paid to HMRC, who will issue a receipt, allowing the executor to apply to the Probate Registry for Grant of Probate.
The Registry will go through the paperwork and issue the Grant allowing the executor to deal with the estate’s assets. This involves selling or transferring everything that the deceased owned.
HMRC can take a long time to agree the information in respect of tax liability. The personal representative will then need to arrange for payment. If this is not possible, they may be able to request that HMRC provide a form allowing them to apply for a Grant on Credit.
The relevant receipt then needs to be forwarded to the Probate Registry along with the application and supporting paperwork, including the Will itself.
If the Probate Registry has any doubts about the validity of the Will, for example if it does not appear to have been witnessed properly, it will delay granting probate until it is satisfied.
This may involve providing documentation from the witnesses and whoever drew up the Will.
Once the Grant has been issued, the executor needs to gather in the assets by writing to banks, building societies, insurance companies etc, sending a certified copy of the Grant of Probate and asking for accounts and policies to be closed and a cheque for monies due to be sent to them.
One of the most time-consuming parts of winding up most estates is the house sale. The property will need to be cleared before the completion date, and a sale alone will usually take two or three months and frequently much longer.
The personal representative is responsible for locating all the beneficiaries, which can take time if the Will was made many years previously and people have dispersed.
If a Will contains any ambiguity or family members feel that they were due money which in fact has not been left to them, disputes may arise which will delay distribution of the estate funds, in serious cases for years.
If you need help to administer an estate professionally and without undue delay, call one of our experts at legalmatters. Call us on 01243 216900 or email us at email@example.com.
A surprising number of difficulties and disputes arise when the beneficiaries to a Will can’t be identified easily.
Although it may be clear when a Will is drawn up who the writer intends to leave their assets to, as time goes by beneficiaries may change their names, often more than once, and/or move away.
Often, a long period of time elapses between the writing of a Will and the administration of the estate. If a Will doesn’t make absolutely clear who is to inherit, it can cause numerous problems for the executor or administrator when they have to find and identify everyone named.
Why you need to do more than just name your beneficiaries
If your Will simply names a beneficiary without any further identifying information, then over the years it can be hard to trace the person intended.
Women in particular may change their names several times throughout their lifetime on marriage, divorce and remarriage.
To help the person who will eventually administer the estate, it is a good idea to include other identifying information, such as address, date of birth and the beneficiary’s relationship to you.
A note containing new addresses can also be put with the Will to make contacting people easier. Beneficiaries will also need to provide the executor with relevant evidence of any change of name, such as a marriage certificate or deed poll.
Why attention to detail in a Will is essential
It is also important to make sure that everyone’s name is correctly spelled in a Will. While an incorrect spelling does not invalidate a gift, it can cause difficulties for the executor and even lead to disputes.
Again, by putting in other identifying information, it will be easier for the executor to be clear exactly what your intentions were.
A professional lawyer will be able to write a Will for you that is clear and unambiguous, with all of your beneficiaries accurately identified. This can avoid expensive and damaging disputes and make sure your intentions are carried out.
To speak to one of our experts about having your Will drafted, ring us on 01243 216900 or email us at firstname.lastname@example.org.